This article was written by Claire Bernish and originally published at TheFreeThoughtProject.com.
Editor’s Comment: Okay. So we know this stuff can be hacked. For several election cycles, we’ve heard about the simple and raw truth that the technology can be edited, flipped, changed, hacked and subverted by just one guy with basic tech skills and a secret party agenda.
And for several cycles, we’ve watched the bad guys steal the vote, and the people’s candidates get shafted again and again. So why are none of the cheated candidates daring to speak out? Why is the opposition so mute? Why does no one care? Perhaps because we’re just simply drowning in corruption and one just wonders how much longer until the whole damn thing gives way altogether.
Princeton Professor Shows How Easy it Is to Hack an Election in Just 7 Minutes
by Claire Bernish
A professor from Princeton University and a graduate student just proved electronic voting machines in the U.S. remain astonishingly vulnerable to hackers — and they did it in under eight minutes.
In fact, Professor Andrew Appel and grad student Alex Halderman took just seven minutes to break into the authentic Sequoia AVC Advantage electronic voting machine Appel purchased for $82 online — one of the oldest models, but still in use Louisiana, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Virginia, Politico reported.
After Halderman picked the hulking, 250-pound machine’s lock in seven seconds flat, Appel wrested its four ROM chips from a circuit board — an easy feat, considering the chips weren’t soldered in place.
Once freed, Appel could facilely replace the ROM chips with his own version “of modified firmware that could throw off the machine’s results, subtly altering the tally of votes, never to betray a hint to the voter,” Politico’s Ben Wofford explained.
Appel and a team of other so-called cyber-academics have hacked into various models of electronic voting machines in order to prove to the public the equipment is ridiculously bereft of security. Together with Ed Felten, Appel and a group of Princeton students “relentlessly hacked one voting machine after another … reprogramming one popular machine to play Pac-Man; infecting popular models with self-duplicating malware; [and] discovering keys to voting machine locks that could be ordered on eBay.”
Their efforts have gone largely ignored for 15 years.
But now, thanks to the explosion of controversy from revealing documents hacked from the DNC — and as-yet unproven accusations of Russian involvement — Appel and his colleagues’ persistence has finally garnered the attention it deserves.
If primaries were successfully rigged through corporate media collusion and behind-the-scenes coordination between the Democratic National Committee and Hillary Clinton’s campaign, voters will certainly wonder what’s in store when they cast ballots using deeply-vulnerable electronic voting machines.
Perhaps that lack of security prompted the Department of Homeland Security to declare electronic voting machines part of U.S. “critical infrastructure” this week — a designation generally reserved for 16 sectors, including transportation systems, dams, and utilities, among other things — deemed “so vital to the United States that their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating effect on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination thereof.”
Now that attention has been given to the ease with which a number of popular, still-employed voting machines can be compromised, officials and voters alike have expressed grave concerns about the upcoming election.
“This isn’t a crazy hypothetical anymore,” Dan Wallach, a computer science professor at Rice and veteran of the team of Princeton ‘hackers,’ noted. “Once you bring nation states’ cyber activity into the game?” he hinted of potential Russian connections to the DNC hack and possible implications of foreign meddling in the national election. “These machines, they barely work in a friendly environment.”
Thirty-one prominent security experts with the Aspen Institute Homeland Security Group issued a statement in response to the DNC hack at the end of July, imploring precautions be taken because “[o]ur electoral process could be a target for reckless foreign governments and terrorist groups.”
“Look, we could see 15 years ago that this would be perfectly possible,” Appel told Wofford. “It’s well within the capabilities of a country as sophisticated as Russia.”
He added ominously, “Actually, it’s well within the capabilities of much less well-funded and sophisticated attackers.”
Electronic voting machines hit the U.S. electoral process in full force following the ‘hanging chad’ controversy in the Bush-Gore race in 2000, in which ballots had to be hand-counted. Ludicrous pictures inundated the news, showing elections officials assiduously examining paper ballots to determine if partially-punched choices equated actual votes in the tight race — a scene officials hoped electronic voting machines would avoid repeating.
But those machines presented notorious problems of their own.
As Wofford explained:
“The Princeton group has a simple message: That the machines that Americans use at the polls are less secure than the iPhones they use to navigate their way there. They’ve see the skeletons of code inside electronic voting’s digital closet, and they’ve mastered the equipment’s vulnerabilities perhaps better than anyone (a contention the voting machine companies contest, of course). They insist the elections could be vulnerable at myriad strike points, among them the software that aggregates the precinct vote totals, and the voter registration rolls that are increasingly digitized. But the threat, the cyber experts say, starts with the machines that tally the votes and crucially keep a record of them — or, in some cases, don’t.”
Because this electronic equipment is now horribly outdated — some machines’ manufacturers no longer offer tech support — and considered, in large part, a ‘failed experiment,’ much has been phased out for better options. But not completely — and those better options still can be easily tampered with, according to Appel and his team.
Indeed, the issues with electronic voting methods are too voluminous to recount in a single article, though Wofford does provide a thorough, albeit lengthy, summary here.
As voters prepare to putatively choose the next American president in November, tales of rigged elections — from the primaries to the presidency — continue to top headlines across the country. With the sheer mountain of political funny business already evidenced this year, electronic voting machines don’t offer anywhere near the sound comfort of retribution the voting public craves.
This article was written by Claire Bernish and originally published at TheFreeThoughtProject.com.
Won’t be fixed this election. They will use the voting machine venerabilities to their benefit.
“WHAT!!!!!! you mean TRUMP won, those DAMN Republicturds actually did it!!! They screwed us again like in 2000!!! BURN IT DOWN BURN IT DOWN!!!!!” They will chant, they will cry, they will use this to get “BETTER” voting machines into the precincts controlled by the FBI and federal agencies.
Our Democracy “Astonishingly Vulnerable To Hackers”?
Hackers are AIPAC.
what i find MOST interesting is that the CHIPS are NOT solder in, that is a BIG PROBLEM!! anybody could swap out and install reprogrammed chips, and i would guess that is what has been happening for many years at some precincts. this country is and has been dead for a long time and finally SOME people are finally seeing it for what it is!!!
Apache54, Indeed Sir. Take a look at this link. Most folks in this country don’t even care who becomes candidate to run for any office. As you said I really do wish the majority are awaken and will set these traitors on fire one by one.
EPROM chips are not supposed to be soldered in so that upgrades may be performed at a later date. The firmware that runs on these machines isn’t the problem. The EPROM chips are not the problem. The fully exposed circuitry once inside the machine is not the problem. The problem is thinking electronic voting machines were ever a good idea. Where anything electronic is concerned, there is little to no security or privacy.
A data leech, for example, can scan magnetic or electronic storage media from a distance and harvest all data within a localized vicinity. Wireless is even worse. Nobody needs to steal your phone or laptop when it can be scanned and copied without your ever knowing. You better believe every device in an airport has been leeched. When they ask you to unlock something, that’s for show. In today’s digital world, nothing is private, nothing is safe, nothing is rock solid; hence why they call it software and firmware, not stoneware, when even hardware isn’t sufficient enough.
Finally, it’s not like your vote EVER counted anyway. It’s not those that cast the ballot making the decision. It is those that count the ballots making the decision. Electronic voting machines just make it easier for the counting class to do their job of ruling you.
Say, why don’t we all just sorta form a “group” (of sorts) and go around removing ALL THE EEPROMS …forcing a manual count (and have Canada do the counting) or our most trusted civilian organization that is 100% removed from The Feds.
I don’t recall when or where, but I once caught some Confidential (declassified) document that showed just how many votes “were never counted for an election” due to “digital delivery problems” …so the votes were “fruitless” and unused. And we think our vote counts huh? (ONLY if you are under the wing of Uncle Sam are you going to succeed or find ‘fair winds and following seas’. Those who are angered by all of this needless corruption are viewed by TPTB as “trouble” (for them), and this is why they seek to first disarm then kill/enslave/??? you. No guns means no fight …and I’d rather take 1,000 rounds than live 1 second as a slave.
And, I damn sure ain’t gonna bow down to anyone who is actively seeking my death and the destruction of my country.
Molon Labe (any day)
Same shit happens with “hand-counted” ballots. Nobody is actually watching the “counters”, who are always an ABC Agency, so of course they are going to ‘sway’ the vote THEIR way. (no differently than they used Florida (Bush) to ‘recount’ just FL and Lo …Obama ripped it off two times without a whimper from THE USA.
Now our POTUS is openly/publicly being revealed for what he is, a “seated” POTUS who is an actual Domestic Enemy (in the most destructive seat he could have picked). He remains unscathed. Hillary has sold us out. No punishments nor talk of any …amazing isn’t it? And TPTB expect US to comply with “daily laws” when they make no efforts to restrict themselves to working within legal parameters?
Do any of you believe ANYTHING will be done to deter cheating (since TPTB will be the ones playing with the numbers in Hillary’s favor)? If you do, you will just be falling for another “ploy” to make it “look legal” (when it will be “fixed as hell” if we allow them even more control over the machines).
Myself, and a ‘bevy’ of USA Attorneys (I’m not an attorney btw), are fully expecting a “total screw job” from every level of government “starting later this year and by the end of March 2017 we’ll be HEAVY INTO IT.” (Meaning: Hillary is expected to win even if NOBODY votes for her, and corruption these days guarantees she’ll be placed where she was promised (8 yrs ago or so). And, Hillary only intends on extending Obama policies plus finishing the destruction of The USA. (THAT isn’t going to take anywhere near four years, but only a few months or less if we are led into a revolution – which is my “choice of resolutions”).
Surely does appear that they intend to turn The USA into MuslimLand under Sharia Law, obliterate all whites/Christians then rule the world through Terror called “nukes” …and there’s only one man who can actually change that much …Putin. (Which is why Putin is presently “in the crosshairs” and he’s well aware of it. I also believe Putin will “make his move” against Hillary “just before” The Election (giving her NO time to unravel what MUST be a ‘nightmare of info’ on her somewhere. Bitch…
the fact that they are calling , and a lot of people are calling this REPUBLIC a democracy already proves its been hacked a long time ago
the idiots that dont know the difference between a Civil war and a Revolution , and the idiots that dont know the difference between a Republic and a democracy are all going to get a hard fast lesson when the shit hits
“you think hillary’s cazy?…wait ’til you see the people that VOTED for her!”
if a hacker can do this in seven minutes, imagine what the people that OWN the machines can do.
You know what… America is still a great land so don’t let the negative bastards grind you down.
I find myself asking… If not America then who?
You people still have a lot that’s good to offer so don’t let some people put you down.
God bless America in Jesus’ holy name.
Every voting machine needs to be tested, locked down under armed guard until the election is over.
Remember the hanging chad? I have voted on those hole punch voting machine before. The punched off chads built up under the punch hole, and get so clogged up it would not allow a new ballot to be fully punched through. Thus leaving half the punched chad hanging, dimpled chad, and thus created the eyeballing review of voters intent to vote. A gray area for true and fair elections.
I now prefer to color in the circle next to the selected name and the ballot is run through the machine reader to count. Then if an particular election was close they could re-hand count the paper trail of voter’s ballots. But maybe the ballot readers too can be hacked.
JESUS WAS BORN IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AND HAD BROWN SKIN!!!!
Plus Jesus is a Jew.
Jesus is LORD.
rellik: Jesus was a Jew or is a Jew? Show me where, (anywhere at all), in The Holy Bible that solidly declares that Jesus was Jewish (or raised Jewish), or was officially “King of The Jews” (and Pontius Pilates sign he hung on Christ’s cross “won’t cut it.”
You’ll find Christ is NOT a Jew, God, throughout The OT all but DAMNS THE JEWS (and to this day they still refuse to recognize Christ) …and other think that Jews are “God’s Chosen People.”
You can’t find a solitary word (to twist), that remotely says such a thing in The Holy Bible.
Christ was not Jewish, and The Jews are not God’s Chosen People (He has NO “chosen” people).
Of course, religious freedom is fine with me, so you may believe anything you wish, and I’m good with it. …just saying ok?
Yeah and you were born with a cracked ass but your folks still kept you…… just sayin’.
Hell, Kim Kardashian was born with a frigging CANYON and her folks still kept her?
Jesus was born in Palestine, thus a Palestinian.
To this day, Israel continues to suppress and kill Palestinians (Jesus’s family members).
Jesus of Nazareth was a Gallilean. NOT a Judean.
Jesus of Nazareth and His Holy Family practiced God’s commandments as delivered by Moses, NOT the Pharisees or others that Jesus damned for “mak[ing] void the commandments of God for the traditions of men” Mark 7:6-9
Judaism FOLLOWED the Pharisees and JESUS HIMSELF damned the followers of the Pharisees as “two fold children of Hell” more than the Pharisees themselves. Matthew 23:15 Jesus did indeed “repudiate Judaism.”
Jesus did not turn His back on His people, but many of them turned their backs on Him!
The word “Jew” has many fluid meanings. Even through the Gospel of St. John you can appreciate how the meaning of “the Jews” changed from meaning the whole of the people to meaning those who conspired against Jesus, murdered Him, and now defame Him and persecute His Church and His new people.
It is diabolical indeed that the synagogue of Satan pretends that Jesus was one of them. They now use the Holy Name of Jesus, the One they hate most, the One whose blood they called down on themselves and all their generations, the One they say was an idolater [Sanhedrin 43a, 107b], the One they say was a mamzer [bastard] conceived adulterously in niddah [menstrual filth] by a Roman soldier named Pandera [Kallah 51a] of a whore [Sanhedrin 106a] and that He is now in Hell boiling in feces and, in some editions because Jesus is accused of sexual perversion, semen [Gittin 57a].(those are talmudic verses, Not biblical verses).
Do not be suckered by those that God warned are “the synagogue of Satan, those who SAY they are Jews, and are NOT, but do LIE.” Apocalypse 3:9
Jesus and the Holy Family were most emphatically NOT one of them.
To myself, the “mind bender” is that The Koran also has a Jesus Christ, and yet is soooooooo very ‘warped out’ I get lost…
THEM GUYS: You are correct, and right when you mention The Talmud (of which few have ever heard of let alone know what it is).
It’s as confusing as is the fact there are five (known) “Old Testaments” (and back near Year Zero was also The Septuagint and other “canonical and non-canonical” writings (and let’s not forget The Apocrypha (used to be a collection of Books stuffed in between The OT and The NT with Canons named Susana and such). Not all that long ago Roman Catholics optioned to remove it with no ‘justifiable reason’ for doing so (unless they are saving trees).
For what it’s worth, The Talmud has never been fully accepted as being “canonical” (and is the source of millions of arguments and deaths in the name of religion – – understandably I suppose).
Equarial: you have it Backwards! to This day still the catholic bibles still Have all, 7 bible books that it orig had when the bible was first cannonized and published by Catholics!
It was the protestants that have removed those prior included bible books. I rekon whichever bible books they dislike or which do not cater to the typical “Judaized” protestant/Baptist version of “christianity” they simply diregarded and then later Re wrote it Minus those seven books.
And Yes much more bible type stuff was written yet not included in the bible. Paul whom wrote Most of the new testement books himself or was it John?, anyways, stated that Christ said and did so many more things that they could never write of nor include even if the bible contained truck loads of seperate books or parts.
That makes sense no? They had to have a cut off point somewheres i suppose.
Bottom line is that the Very Early on Church scholors, and bishops, which back then of course were all catholic as no protestants nor any other denominations yet existed then, were very smart guys…Several were fully fluent in Greek and Hebrew as well as various other european languages. Plus the vatican contains probably far more of the orig writings than all others combined.
not certin? but I think it was the septuigent bible that goes back farthest and is most accurate.
Keep in mind also that at least Three times known of them Rabbis scribes (writers) Re wrote various old testement parts to suit Their distorted versions of jewdeo greatness etc and make themselves look like bigger victims and better war winners…Whatever best suited any particular era or war or conquest/genocide against goys etc.
The biggest mess of all time is that Christ created ONE single church period. Thanks to early and later protestants etc we now have something like 4,000 different denominations or versions!
And I am 100% certain that upon return of Christ He is going to Only recognize ONE church again. So it seems to me a wize choice would be to chooze wizely weedhoppahs!
PS: for a very Great/Good explaination about that very early bible and the many changes done since it was published etc go to website of judaism dot is
Check side listing at website for issues on bible and many more WWI and WWII and nazi vs jews issues etc.
Note that that websites info came Mostly From various Rabbis and jewish writers themselves!…So Nobody can call that info or the writers of it an antisemite eh.
Straight speak right from their Own mouths or written words/pens! Debate That naysayers! (not meaning you equarial).
FTW, Jesus’ family members are born of the Holy Spirit,
it has nothing to do with mans whims, seed or wherever a person may have been born…
We are living in a time of spiritual warfare, West versus East! we need a protector to help get us through.
Onward Christian Soldiers…
The (((Jews))) Murdered Jesus.. According to the book of excuses.
Jesus and his crew used to cut my neighbors lawn on Tuesdays in the city. Did not know he was from the Mediterranean. Thought he was more like Mexican as he did have brown skin, and I swear the guy was talking Spanish to his crew. WhoWuddaThunkIt ? lol
When I did my ’20’ in The Navy, it was a long time ago. In fact, Christ was still a Mess-Cook on The USS Forrestal when I first joined.
Maybe that is why Romney got zero votes in 59 pricincts of Philly in 2012.
On a more sinister side, has any one considered that Putin is openly making it look like he is attacking Hillary because he wants the fingers pointed at Trump and make it look like he supports Trump. I believe he would rather have her continuing Obamas hands off approach and doesn’t think she has the balls to intervene.
Hands off approach? With what the fuck are you talking about? You mean the hands off approach with the coup d’etat in the Ukraine and installing a puppet regime? You mean all missile sites we’re installing in the Eastern block and pointing at Russia? Do you mean that hands off approach in Syria where Russia has it’s only naval base with access to the Mediterranean Sea located in Tartus whilst we fund and arm the so called moderate, but not so moderate and actually extremist rebels? Yeah, that’s some real hands off shit right there buddy. You don’t read much, do you?
Cell phones = voting machines of the future.
Agent Skinhead… We are not negative as we may seem… this is just how Americans roll.
A lot of it is just a way of saying to our young men and women that shed their life’s blood on the battlefield …YOU DID NOT DIE IN VAIN . …
But thank you for your comment … That’s nice.
I’ve been saying this for YEARS.
Unsure Who will get elected for president this november. But, know who I am voting for.
I Recall back when obama got elected (selected) for the second term. Was sure folk wouldn’t vote for him again. Maybe they didn’t.
Hillary may be selected. Not elected.
We Americans have been silent for so long long. May God forgive us.
I seen a video on how the machines can be hacked.. I was very sad and l cried .
Hillary is owned. Trump is bought. say you had all the needed money. and desired to buy the republican candidate to ensure hillarys victory. If you where looking for someone who had name recognition. Had television carsma. Had thick skin. Was outlandish. Was a deal making flim flam artist. Could put on a real show. You couldn’t have found anyone better than Trump. All trump was paid to do was win the republican nomination and divide the party. And when it began to look like he might win. Guess what he self sabatoges. There is only one thing vote independent. It Wont do any good. But you can say I never fell for the circus.
Nobody bought Trump, you Bozo Old Guy senile penile.
Really Trump is a plant. Good grief look who his daughter married. Look who his friends are. You fell for his politician lies. Pay attention to what trump actually does not what he says.
OLD GUY– FOR ONCE IN MY LIFE I AGREE WITH YOU!
Trump is “bought?” ROFLMAO …sure he is. ANYONE with only trillions of dollars are the very first to JUMP at the chance to have a few bucks eh?
Hillary owned? Not in her mind (she’s a Legend).
Nobody (with a brain) in America is falling for “the circus” either. I do believe this is why so very many are already making plans (I think they are called “preppers” in some countries), to have enough to eat should Hillary “steal the ticket” …and we’ve also plenty of ammo and backup plans so that we may evade or destroy any and all ‘things’ they may try to do (illegally), against We The People.
Personally, I fully believe we are 100% justified in hanging all their asses starting today. That day will come when “the line” is breeched/crossed (and there won’t be a helluva lot of warning).
The art of winning this bullshit is “surprise.” (No diff than an ambush). One of these upcoming days, out of nowhere, we are going to take one “from the side” that will knock about everyone off their feet …and THAT will be the onset of a long and arduous revolution or perhaps that AND a World War (just to keep it fun and exciting and sleepless). War sleeps not.
Putin DOES NOT WANT HILLARY as president. He’s all but openly spoken those words. He HAS stated he likes Trump and hopes he wins. If Hillary takes the Helm of The USA, she’ll only do so to run us “hard aground” in the midst of nuclear war. Bitch gets off on “death” and ‘playing with little girls’. The one kept on the island south of Puerto Rico for her (and thousands of other rich pedophiles ….yet nobody has once tried to save those children either. Fuckin’ disgusting Hillary is NEAR DEATH and I’m keep hoping Bill’s heart will explode and Hillary will just drop dead from whatever.
Theft at every level…..
Right on boyo.
I post one time, and it is held for moderation. Do it again and it goes right through. First one, then the other…. gee whiz.
Is this a Linux “Server Program” with a ‘hair across its ass?
Told my wife what happens at the end of the night when people don’t cast their vote. The people operating the polls pull up the ticket and vote for you before the polls close that’s what. She said I’m crazy they don’t do this. I said sure right.
7 Minutes To Steal The Vote: Our Democracy “Astonishingly Vulnerable To Hackers”
Not necessarily so … this has always been a process done from within the Establishment itself.
Can anybody find a process that isn’t Rigged or Manipulated in America?
Oh and BTW – “don’t forget to vote, these parasites that rule over us need your consent and support to continue their pillaging onto us and the World.”
The media will continue to report that Hillary leads in the polls right up to election day.
Regardless of the real vote, Hillary will win with a percentage of the vote that closely mirrors the polls.
To me distrust of the gov is a healthy thing. People who trust the gov entirely are mentally ill. Any so called leadership that claims to know what’s best for me and my family only has their best interest at heart.
We need to go back to old-fashioned paper ballots with simple check boxes, counted by hand in front of representatives of all interested parties.
We also need voter ID. NC was going to start it this year, but the federal government said no.
Solutions are simple if only they could be made to happen.
Knowing The Constitution and how it is SUPPOSED to be done, why do we allow an already corrupted gov to dispense with the idea of Voter ID? Because it would be too hard for them to cheat then?
I read The Constitution and Bill of Rights. I then look at The USA and behold, The Federal Government has “taken over” absolutely everything that is supposed to be “in the power of someone else’s hands (States, We The People —-BUT NOT THEM)!
So why is it so “ass-end-up” Mr. Archivist? (And hey! Haven’t caught you around in some time)!
OF COURSE THERE IS A CONSPIRACY– THE WHOLE DAMN GOVERNMENT IS A CONSPIRACY. NOTICE WHENEVER THERE IS A CONSPIRACY THEY SAY THAT…
We use paper ballots in this part of Texas you must have a state I.d Or D.l. and they swipe it. Can’t rig that.
of COARSE you can rig THAT…………
I wish In. had paper ballot so I could vote for pence then tear off the part with trumps name on it and hand it back to the poll worker
The entire system is rigged from top to bottom. You can vote but not count or decide the vote. The only one certainty is that more wars are going to happen to cover the collapse, kill off and clearly evident treason. Hope and change for the worse. Like taking candy from a baby. People are waiting for what?
People are waiting to see if Trump makes it in or not. If not, we’ll be at war before Christmas, or at the very least building up to one starting 1 minute after they announce our new POTUS (if it is to be Hillary).
312 million Americans are not going to let an old, witch hag that is as crooked as a Kentucky Mountain Road, and has clearly “sold out The USA” (for personal gain as Secretary of State …which we all know is illegal, but corruption prevents laws being observed when it comes to politicians)? Nope …we are just awaiting the excuse we need to tear them down.
Until then, just bide your time and get all the ammo you can (there won’t be any more once this gets kicked off except for the guys with “the tools and knowledge” to reload and “gunsmith.”
Hand checked paper ballots can be independently verified and are somewhat tougher to falsify en masse. Hence the reason for mandatory electronic machines-it makes corruption simpler.
Many people look to America for hope… But the way the globalists have shaped our lands, there appears to be nothing goin’ on except total friggin’ despair… CRAP!
If only they were decent people at heart… Things could be so cool.
Just pondering, sigh.
I don’t even know how to answer these the those questions. Of course, the elections will not be rigged. (But his suppressed laugh and twisted smile gave him away).
Of course, the elections are rigged. How the hell do you think I got to be here talking with all you fine people, silly goose.
_____anybody for a turn at the slot machines
7 Minuets my a%% its already been stolen we just aint been informed of it yet
We HAVE been informed. Hillary isn’t in prison because she’s to be our next “selected” POTUS. Get used to it….
And get ready to get down ‘hard’…